Dynamic Time-Stable Geocast Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
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Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have emerged as an area of interest for both industry and research scholars because they have become an essential part of intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). Many applications in VANET require sending a message to certain or all vehicles within a region, called geocast. Sometimes geocast requires that the message be kept alive within the region for a period of time. This time-stable geocast has a vital role in some ITS applications, particularly commercial applications. This study presents a novel time-stable geocast protocol that works well even in too sparse networks. Moreover, since commercial applications sometimes make it necessary to change the duration of the stable message within the region, the dynamic nature of a geocast protocol should allow this time to be extended, reduced, or canceled without any additional cost. Therefore, we call it a dynamic time-stable geocast, DTSG, protocol. It works in two phases (the pre-stable period and the stable period), and the simulation results show that it works well in its performance metrics (delivery ratio and network cost). In addition, these results validate the protocol prediction of its performance metrics. Moreover, with the informed time of zero, all the intended vehicles will be informed as soon as they enter the region. The fact that the protocol is independent of the networks’ density, the vehicles’ speed, and the vehicles’ broadcasting range, makes it more robust than others that fail in sparse networks or in high-speed nodes.