Sensitivity Enhancement of Near Field Probes Using Negative Materials
Boybay, Muhammed Said
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In the last decade, design and application of negative materials have been one of the most interesting subjects in the electromagnetic research. The extraordinary properties of double negative (DNG) and single negative (SNG) materials have been studied extensively over this period. In this thesis, one of the unusual properties of negative materials, the evanescent amplification, is used to improve the sensitivity of the near field probes. The effect of placing DNG and SNG layers between the near field probes and the targets are investigated theoretically. A sensitivity definition is introduced for evanescent probes and it is shown using quantitative measures that the sensitivity can be increased using DNG and SNG materials for a target in vacuum and for a buried target. The electromagnetic loss of the negative materials and the mismatch between the material properties of the host medium and DNG and SNG materials are studied. Using an unmatched DNG layer or SNG layer enhances the sensitivity within an evanescent spectrum range while a lossless and matched DNG layer improves the sensitivity of entire evanescent spectrum. The idea of using negative materials is implemented over conventional near field probes by numerical experiments. Sensitivities of open-ended waveguides and open-ended coaxial lines for a specific application are studied in the presence of negative materials. In the case of precursor pitting detection on airplane bodies, the sensitivity of an open-ended waveguide probe is increased by 35 times for a λ/10 sized cubic crack. It is also shown that the negative material increases the quality of the image generated by the probe. The sensitivity improvement is also verified for an open-ended coaxial line. A 11 times improvement is achieved for a similar detection practice, with a λ/20 sized crack. The effect of coaxial line size and the dielectric material on the sensitivity enhancement are studied. The improvement is studied theoretically and numerically for an electrically small dipole. Theoretical studies show that when a small dipole is placed within a spherical shell made of DNG materials, the antenna parameters of the dipole becomes more sensitive to the position of a target placed outside the negative material shell. The field distribution generated by a small dipole in a multilayered spherical medium is studied for this purpose. Numerical analysis of a small dipole placed next to a planar DNG layer is presented. The DNG layer increases the sensitivity of the dipole due to a λ/30 sized metallic target by 5.5 times. To provide experimental verification, the sensitivity of an electrically small loop is studied. SNG materials with a negative permeability around 1.25 GHz are designed using modified split ring resonators (MSRR). By using the effective parameters of the designed structure, a sensitivity improvement of 10 times is achieved numerically. The improvement is verified using fabricated MSRR structures. The sensitivity of the small loop is enhanced by 9 times for a λ/12.2 sized metallic target. The sensitivity improvements are achieved within the frequency band where the MSRR structures behave as a μ-negative SNG material.