Modified Gravity and the Phantom of Dark Matter
Brownstein, Joel Richard
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Astrophysical data analysis of the weak-field predictions support the claim that modified gravity (MOG) theories provide a self-consistent, scale-invariant, universal description of galaxy rotation curves, without the need of non-baryonic dark matter. Comparison to the predictions of Milgrom's modified dynamics (MOND) provide a best-fit and experimentally determined universal value of the MOND acceleration parameter. The predictions of the modified gravity theories are compared to the predictions of cold non-baryonic dark matter (CDM), including a constant density core-modified fitting formula, which produces excellent fits to galaxy rotation curves including the low surface brightness and dwarf galaxies. Upon analysing the mass profiles of clusters of galaxies inferred from X-ray luminosity measurements, from the smallest nearby clusters to the largest of the clusters of galaxies, it is shown that while MOG provides consistent fits, MOND does not fit the observed shape of cluster mass profiles for any value of the MOND acceleration parameter. Comparison to the predictions of CDM confirm that whereas the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) fitting formula does not fit the observed shape of galaxy cluster mass profiles, the core-modified dark matter fitting formula provides excellent best-fits, supporting the hypothesis that baryons are dynamically important in the distribution of dark matter halos.