Cryptographic Protocols, Sensor Network Key Management, and RFID Authentication
This thesis includes my research on efficient cryptographic protocols, sensor network key management, and radio frequency identification (RFID) authentication protocols. Key exchange, identification, and public key encryption are among the fundamental protocols studied in cryptography. There are two important requirements for these protocols: efficiency and security. Efficiency is evaluated using the computational overhead to execute a protocol. In modern cryptography, one way to ensure the security of a protocol is by means of provable security. Provable security consists of a security model that specifies the capabilities and the goals of an adversary against the protocol, one or more cryptographic assumptions, and a reduction showing that breaking the protocol within the security model leads to breaking the assumptions. Often, efficiency and provable security are not easy to achieve simultaneously. The design of efficient protocols in a strict security model with a tight reduction is challenging. Security requirements raised by emerging applications bring up new research challenges in cryptography. One such application is pervasive communication and computation systems, including sensor networks and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Specifically, sensor network key management and RFID authentication protocols have drawn much attention in recent years. In the cryptographic protocol part, we study identification protocols, key exchange protocols, and ElGamal encryption and its variant. A formal security model for challenge-response identification protocols is proposed, and a simple identification protocol is proposed and proved secure in this model. Two authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols are proposed and proved secure in the extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model. The proposed AKE protocols achieve tight security reduction and efficient computation. We also study the security of ElGamal encryption and its variant, Damgard’s ElGamal encryption (DEG). Key management is the cornerstone of the security of sensor networks. A commonly recommended key establishment mechanism is based on key predistribution schemes (KPS). Several KPSs have been proposed in the literature. A KPS installs pre-assigned keys to sensor nodes so that two nodes can communicate securely if they share a key. Multi-path key establishment (MPKE) is one component of KPS which enables two nodes without a shared key to establish a key via multiple node-disjoint paths in the network. In this thesis, methods to compute the k-connectivity property of several representative key predistribution schemes are developed. A security model for MPKE and efficient and secure MPKE schemes are proposed. Scalable, privacy-preserving, and efficient authentication protocols are essential for the success of RFID systems. Two such protocols are proposed in this thesis. One protocol uses finite field polynomial operations to solve the scalability challenge. Its security is based on the hardness of the polynomial reconstruction problem. The other protocol improves a randomized Rabin encryption based RFID authentication protocol. It reduces the hardware cost of an RFID tag by using a residue number system in the computation, and it provides provable security by using secure padding schemes.