Efficient Reasoning Techniques for Large Scale Feature Models
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In Software Product Lines (SPLs), a feature model can be used to represent the similarities and differences within a family of software systems. This allows describing the systems derived from the product line as a unique combination of the features in the model. What makes feature models particularly appealing is the fact that the constraints in the model prevent incompatible features from being part of the same product. Despite the benefits of feature models, constructing and maintaining these models can be a laborious task especially in product lines with a large number of features and constraints. As a result, the study of automated techniques to reason on feature models has become an important research topic in the SPL community in recent years. Two techniques, in particular, have significant appeal for researchers: SAT solvers and Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). Each technique has been applied successfully for over four decades now to tackle many practical combinatorial problems in various domains. Currently, several approaches have proposed the compilation of feature models to specific logic representations to enable the use of SAT solvers and BDDs. In this thesis, we argue that several critical issues related to the use of SAT solvers and BDDs have been consistently neglected. For instance, satisfiability is a well-known NP-complete problem which means that, in theory, a SAT solver might be unable to check the satisfiability of a feature model in a feasible amount of time. Similarly, it is widely known that the size of BDDs can become intractable for large models. At the same time, we currently do not know precisely whether these are real issues when feature models, especially large ones, are compiled to SAT and BDD representations. Therefore, in our research we provide a significant step forward in the state-of-the-art by examining deeply many relevant properties of the feature modeling domain and the mechanics of SAT solvers and BDDs and the sensitive issues related to these techniques when applied in that domain. Specifically, we provide more accurate explanations for the space and/or time (in)tractability of these techniques in the feature modeling domain, and enhance the algorithmic performance of these techniques for reasoning on feature models. The contributions of our work include the proposal of novel heuristics to reduce the size of BDDs compiled from feature models, several insights on the construction of efficient domain-specific reasoning algorithms for feature models, and empirical studies to evaluate the efficiency of SAT solvers in handling very large feature models.