Prediction Performance of Survival Models
Statistical models are often used for the prediction of future random variables. There are two types of prediction, point prediction and probabilistic prediction. The prediction accuracy is quantified by performance measures, which are typically based on loss functions. We study the estimators of these performance measures, the prediction error and performance scores, for point and probabilistic predictors, respectively. The focus of this thesis is to assess the prediction performance of survival models that analyze censored survival times. To accommodate censoring, we extend the inverse probability censoring weighting (IPCW) method, thus arbitrary loss functions can be handled. We also develop confidence interval procedures for these performance measures. We compare model-based, apparent loss based and cross-validation estimators of prediction error under model misspecification and variable selection, for absolute relative error loss (in chapter 3) and misclassification error loss (in chapter 4). Simulation results indicate that cross-validation procedures typically produce reliable point estimates and confidence intervals, whereas model-based estimates are often sensitive to model misspecification. The methods are illustrated for two medical contexts in chapter 5. The apparent loss based and cross-validation estimators of performance scores for probabilistic predictor are discussed and illustrated with an example in chapter 6. We also make connections for performance.