Analysis and Application of Optimization Techniques to Power System Security and Electricity Markets
Avalos Munoz, Jose Rafael
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Determining the maximum power system loadability, as well as preventing the system from being operated close to the stability limits is very important in power systems planning and operation. The application of optimization techniques to power systems security and electricity markets is a rather relevant research area in power engineering. The study of optimization models to determine critical operating conditions of a power system to obtain secure power dispatches in an electricity market has gained particular attention. This thesis studies and develops optimization models and techniques to detect or avoid voltage instability points in a power system in the context of a competitive electricity market. A thorough analysis of an optimization model to determine the maximum power loadability points is first presented, demonstrating that a solution of this model corresponds to either Saddle-node Bifurcation (SNB) or Limit-induced Bifurcation (LIB) points of a power flow model. The analysis consists of showing that the transversality conditions that characterize these bifurcations can be derived from the optimality conditions at the solution of the optimization model. The study also includes a numerical comparison between the optimization and a continuation power flow method to show that these techniques converge to the same maximum loading point. It is shown that the optimization method is a very versatile technique to determine the maximum loading point, since it can be readily implemented and solved. Furthermore, this model is very flexible, as it can be reformulated to optimize different system parameters so that the loading margin is maximized. The Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem with voltage stability (VS) constraints is a highly nonlinear optimization problem which demands robust and efficient solution techniques. Furthermore, the proper formulation of the VS constraints plays a significant role not only from the practical point of view, but also from the market/system perspective. Thus, a novel and practical OPF-based auction model is proposed that includes a VS constraint based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the power flow Jacobian. The newly developed model is tested using realistic systems of up to 1211 buses to demonstrate its practical application. The results show that the proposed model better represents power system security in the OPF and yields better market signals. Furthermore, the corresponding solution technique outperforms previous approaches for the same problem. Other solution techniques for this OPF problem are also investigated. One makes use of a cutting planes (CP) technique to handle the VS constraint using a primal-dual Interior-point Method (IPM) scheme. Another tries to reformulate the OPF and VS constraint as a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, since SDP has proven to work well for certain power system optimization problems; however, it is demonstrated that this technique cannot be used to solve this particular optimization problem.
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