Longitudinal impact of newly acquired closed-circuit televisions (CCTV) on quality of life for low vision patients
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Ongoing efforts to quantify changes in quality of life attributable to low vision rehabilitation have focused on the utility of a single test instrument to measure this multidimensional concept. It is hypothesized that quality of life is best assessed using multiple instruments to capture some of its component facets, including functional status and psychosocial impact. Low vision devices have a predictably spontaneous impact on functional vision status, but associated psychosocial impact occurs with different magnitudes and over more protracted time intervals. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) measures the functional status of individuals in key vision areas that are associated with quality of life. The Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) is an instrument that measures the psychosocial impact of assistive device intervention in three quality of life domains: competence, adaptability, and self-esteem. 68 participants were obtained from an ongoing parent study. These participants were recruited through the Low Vision Clinic at the University of Waterloo. They had a primary diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and were obtaining a CCTV system for the first time. Assessments from the parent study used in this thesis included follow-up from 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-adoption of the CCTV. The two tests administered were to measure functional vision status (NEI VFQ-25) and perceived psychosocial impact (PIADS), according the framework outlined by the Consortium for Assistive Technology Outcomes Research (CATOR). Multivariate repeated-measures ANVOA results confirmed that CCTV systems have an immediate and robust effect on the daily visual functioning of their users, and that this effect is stable over long periods of device use. The psychosocial impact of CCTV device use peaks in the shorter term and then seems to wane in the longer term for reasons that are not yet understood. The NEI VFQ-25 and the PIADS appear to have differential sensitivity to important influences on low vision rehabilitation outcomes. This project has demonstrated the value of longitudinal outcomes research in low vision rehabilitation. After obtaining a CCTV, visual function status remains static while psychosocial impact is dynamic during 6-months of follow-up.