Distributed Document Clustering and Cluster Summarization in Peer-to-Peer Environments
Hammouda, Khaled M.
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This thesis addresses difficult challenges in distributed document clustering and cluster summarization. Mining large document collections poses many challenges, one of which is the extraction of topics or summaries from documents for the purpose of interpretation of clustering results. Another important challenge, which is caused by new trends in distributed repositories and peer-to-peer computing, is that document data is becoming more distributed. We introduce a solution for interpreting document clusters using keyphrase extraction from multiple documents simultaneously. We also introduce two solutions for the problem of distributed document clustering in peer-to-peer environments, each satisfying a different goal: maximizing local clustering quality through collaboration, and maximizing global clustering quality through cooperation. The keyphrase extraction algorithm efficiently extracts and scores candidate keyphrases from a document cluster. The algorithm is called CorePhrase and is based on modeling document collections as a graph upon which we can leverage graph mining to extract frequent and significant phrases, which are used to label the clusters. Results show that CorePhrase can extract keyphrases relevant to documents in a cluster with very high accuracy. Although this algorithm can be used to summarize centralized clusters, it is specifically employed within distributed clustering to both boost distributed clustering accuracy, and to provide summaries for distributed clusters. The first method for distributed document clustering is called collaborative peer-to-peer document clustering, which models nodes in a peer-to-peer network as collaborative nodes with the goal of improving the quality of individual local clustering solutions. This is achieved through the exchange of local cluster summaries between peers, followed by recommendation of documents to be merged into remote clusters. Results on large sets of distributed document collections show that: (i) such collaboration technique achieves significant improvement in the final clustering of individual nodes; (ii) networks with larger number of nodes generally achieve greater improvements in clustering after collaboration relative to the initial clustering before collaboration, while on the other hand they tend to achieve lower absolute clustering quality than networks with fewer number of nodes; and (iii) as more overlap of the data is introduced across the nodes, collaboration tends to have little effect on improving clustering quality. The second method for distributed document clustering is called hierarchically-distributed document clustering. Unlike the collaborative model, this model aims at producing one clustering solution across the whole network. It specifically addresses scalability of network size, and consequently the distributed clustering complexity, by modeling the distributed clustering problem as a hierarchy of node neighborhoods. Summarization of the global distributed clusters is achieved through a distributed version of the CorePhrase algorithm. Results on large document sets show that: (i) distributed clustering accuracy is not affected by increasing the number of nodes for networks of single level; (ii) we can achieve decent speedup by making the hierarchy taller, but on the expense of clustering quality which degrades as we go up the hierarchy; (iii) in networks that grow arbitrarily, data gets more fragmented across neighborhoods causing poor centroid generation, thus suggesting we should not increase the number of nodes in the network beyond a certain level without increasing the data set size; and (iv) distributed cluster summarization can produce accurate summaries similar to those produced by centralized summarization. The proposed algorithms offer high degree of flexibility, scalability, and interpretability of large distributed document collections. Achieving the same results using current methodologies require centralization of the data first, which is sometimes not feasible.
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