Reduction of CO2 Emissions from Cement Plants
Gante Caruso, Hernane
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Reduction of CO2 Emissions from Cement Plants Governments around the world have been pressured by society to discuss environmental issues, and global warming is one of the most controversial debates. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Under Kyoto protocol some countries committed to reduce their Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted global rise in temperature and carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. The cement industry contributes approximately five per cent of the total CO2 emitted worldwide. Currently Canada sustains a very aggressive objective to reduce GHG emissions to support the Kyoto Protocol. It is clear that international affairs and global polices will affect different sectors and even though cement production and distribution is constrained by location and natural resource availability, the major cement producers around the globe will be required to meet more stringent environmental regulations. Kyoto presents a ‘cap and trade’ mechanism that requires countries to reduce, on average, 5.2 per cent below their 1990 baseline. This reduction must take place between 2008 and 2012. Although these caps are country specific, most countries are requiring industries to have particular objectives for reduction. This can be seen especially in European countries. The credit trade opportunity increases the possibility for an economical justification of new and environmentally friendly solution for GHG emissions abatement. St Marys Plant, located in St Marys, Ontario, was used as a case study to evaluate the results of various modifications on cement plants operation that can impact on the plant CO2 emissions. An economic model which objective is to highlight the best selection strategy to reduce CO2 emissions with the least cost was developed using St Marys Plant data as part of this thesis. St Marys Plant achieved a significant result of 23.6 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions per tonne of cement produced. The results were achieved mainly by applying a progressive approach prioritising project implementation effort and feasibility. St Marys main steps were 1) implementation of a more robust maintenance system, 2) plant optimization and Kiln expert system; 3) alternative fuels and 4) major equipment modifications.