Pixel Circuits and Driving Schemes for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays
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Rapid progress over the last decade on thin film transistor (TFT) active matrix organic light emitting (AMOLED) displays led to the emergence of high-performance, low-power, low-cost flat panel displays. Despite the shortcomings of the active matrix that are associated with the instability and low mobility of TFTs, the amorphous silicon TFT technology still remains the primary solution for the AMOLED backplane. To take advantage of this technology, it is crucial to develop driving schemes and circuit techniques to compensate for the limitations of the TFTs. The driving schemes proposed in this thesis address these challenges, in which, the sensitivity of the OLED current to the transistor variations is reduced significantly. This is achieved by comparing the data signal with a feedback signal associated with the pixel current by means of an external driving circuit through a column feedback line. Depending on the nature of the feedback signal, (i.e. current or voltage) several pixel circuits and external drivers are proposed. New AMOLED pixel circuits with voltage and current feedback are designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested. The performance of these circuits is analyzed in terms of their stability, settling time, power efficiency, noise, and temperature-dependence. For the pixel circuits with current feedback, an operational transresistance amplifier is designed and implemented in a high-voltage CMOS process. Measurement results for both voltage and current feedback driving schemes indicate less than a 2%/V sensitivity to shifts in the threshold voltage of the TFTs. By using current feedback and an accelerating pulse, programming times less than 50 s are achieved.