Asymmetric Synthesis using 3,3'-Disubstituted Binaphthol-modified Boronates
A number of 3,3'-disubstituted binaphthol-modified allylboronates (<strong>2. 42a-m</strong>) were prepared from the reaction between triallylborane and the corresponding 3,3'-disubstituted binaphthols. These chiral allylboronates could allylate carbonyl compounds to produce chiral homoallylic alcohols in high chemical and optical yields. Chiral ligands were readily recycled through simple acid-base extraction. Among all allylboronates tested, 3,3'-(CF<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>-BINOL-modified allylboronate (<strong>2. 42b</strong>) is an especially effective reagent that allows for allylborations of both aldehydes and ketones in high enantioselectivities (up to 98% yield and >99% <em>ee</em>). Reagent <strong>2. 42b</strong> represents one of the best allylation reagents for carbonyl compounds developed thus far. <br /><br /> Allylations of cyclic imines using 3,3'-disubstituted binaphthol-modified allylboronates (<strong>2. 42a-j</strong>) were carried out at low temperature. 3,3'-Bis[3,5-(CF<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>-C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>3</sub>]-binaphthol-modified allylboronate (<strong>2. 42j</strong>) gave the best enantioselectivities (91% <em>ee</em> to >99% <em>ee</em>) in the allylation of a variety of cyclic imines. This methodology represents the first successful enantioselective allylboration of cyclic imines. The versatility of the allylation products (chiral a-allyl cyclic amines) was demonstrated through efficient total syntheses of several naturally occurring alkaloids such as coniine, crispine A and corynantheidol. <br /><br /> 3,3'-Disubstituted binaphthol-modified alkynylboronates (<strong>4. 47a-g</strong>) were synthesized according to a reported procedure. It was found that these chiral alkynylboronates add to <em>N</em>-acylaldimines in an enantioselective manner to produce chiral propargylamides in excellent yields and enantioselectivities. Up to >99% <em>ee</em> could be obtained with 3,3'-diphenyl binaphthol-modified alkynylboronates (<strong>4. 47f</strong>). This represents the first direct asymmetric synthesis of chiral propargylamides. Using this methodology, an antitubulin agent (-)-<em>N</em>-acetylcolchinol (AstraZeneca® ZD6126 phenol) was synthesized in 4 steps from commercially available 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde. <br /><br /> During a study of the asymmetric conjugate alkynylation of enones via chiral alkynylboronates, it was found that achiral dialkyl alkynylboronates could add to enones enantioselectively in the presence of catalytic amounts of chiral bidentate ligands (such as 3,3'-disubstituted binaphthols, diisopropyl tartrate and activated chiral amino acids). A catalytic cycle driven by "ligand-exchange" processes was proposed to rationalize this asymmetric induction. This is the first reported example of an asymmetric reaction that is promoted by a catalytic amount of an exchangeable chiral ligand on the boron reagent. More importantly, we have demonstrated a proof of principle that ligand exchange with boronates can be sufficiently fast that catalytic amounts of chiral ligands can be used to effect high levels of stereoselectivity. This catalytic protocol can potentially be applied to other asymmetric reactions providing the following three requirements are met: (1) the starting achiral boronate does not react with the electrophile (no background reaction); (2) the chiral boronate reacts with the electrophile and (3) ligand exchange or transesterification occurs under the reaction conditions. Potential applications of this principle include asymmetric allylboration, hydroboration, aldol reaction and reduction, just to name a few.