Fiber Birefringence Modeling for Polarization Mode Dispersion
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This thesis concerns polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fiber communications. Specifically, we study fiber birefringence, PMD stochastic properties, PMD mitigation and the interaction of fiber birefringence and fiber nonlinearity. Fiber birefringence is the physical origin of polarization mode dispersion. Current models of birefringence in optical fibers assume that the birefringence vector varies randomly either in orientation with a fixed magnitude or simultaneously in both magnitude and direction. These models are applicable only to certain birefringence profiles. For a broader range of birefringence profiles, we propose and investigate four general models in which the stochastically varying amplitude is restricted to a limited range. In addition, mathematical algorithms are introduced for the numerical implementation of these models. To investigate polarization mode dispersion, we first apply these models to single mode fibers. In particular, two existing models and our four more general models are employed for the evolution of optical fiber birefringence with longitudinal distance to analyze, both theoretically and numerically, the behavior of the polarization mode dispersion. We find that while the probability distribution function of the differential group delay (DGD) varies along the fiber length as in existing models, the dependence of the mean DGD on fiber length differs noticeably from earlier predictions. Fiber spinning reduces polarization mode dispersion effects in optical fibers. Since relatively few studies have been performed of the dependence of the reduction factor on the strength of random background birefringence fluctuations, we here apply a general birefringence model to sinusoidal spun fibers. We find that while, as expected, the phase matching condition is not affected by random perturbations, the degree of PMD reduction as well as the probability distribution function of the DGD are both influenced by the random components of the birefringence. Together with other researchers, I have also examined a series of experimentally realizable procedures to compensate for PMD in optical fiber systems. This work demonstrates that a symmetric ordering of compensator elements combined with Taylor and Chebyshev approximations to the transfer matrix for the light polarization in optical fibers can significantly widen the compensation bandwidth. In the last part of the thesis, we applied the Manakov-PMD equation and a general model of fiber birefringence to investigate pulse distortion induced by the interaction of fiber birefringence and fiber nonlinearity. We find that the effect of nonlinearity on the pulse distortion differs markedly with the birefringence profile.
Cite this version of the work
Weihong Huang (2007). Fiber Birefringence Modeling for Polarization Mode Dispersion. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/2647