Hierarchical Coordinated Fast Frequency Control using Inverter-Based Resources for Next-Generation Power Grids
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The proportion of inverter-connected renewable energy resources (RES) in the grid is expanding, primarily displacing conventional synchronous generators. This shift significantly impacts the objective of maintaining grid stability and reliable operations. The increased penetration of RESs contributes to the variability of active power supply and a decrease in the rotational inertia of the grid, resulting in faster system dynamics and larger, more frequent frequency events. These emerging challenges could make traditional centralized frequency control strategies ineffective, necessitating the adoption of modern, high-bandwidth control schemes. In this thesis, we propose a novel hierarchical and coordinated real-time frequency control scheme. It leverages advancements in grid monitoring and communication infrastructure to employ local, flexible inverter-based resources for promptly correcting power imbalances in the system. We solve two research problems that, when combined, yield a practical, real-time, next-generation frequency control scheme. This scheme blends localized control with high-bandwidth wide-area coordination. For the first problem, we propose a layered architecture where control, estimation, and optimization tasks are efficiently aggregated and decentralized across the system. This layered control structure, comprising decentralized, distributed, and centralized assets, enables fast, localized control responses to local power imbalances, integrated with wide- area coordination. For the second problem, we propose a data-driven extension to the framework to enhance model flexibility. Achieving high accuracy in system models used for control design is a considerable challenge due to the increasing scale, complexity, and evolving dynamics of the power system. In our proposed approach, we leverage collected data to provide direct data-driven controller designs for fast frequency regulation. The devised scheme ensures swift and effective frequency control for the bulk grid by accurately re-dispatching inverter-based resources (IBRs) to compensate for unmeasured net-load changes. These changes are computed in real-time using frequency and area tie power flow measurements, alongside collected historical data, thus eliminating reliance on proprietary power system models. Validated through detailed simulations under various scenarios such as load increase, generation trips, and three-phase faults, the scheme is practical, provides rapid, localized frequency control, safeguards data privacy, and eliminates the need for system models of the increasingly complex power system.
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Etinosa Ekomwenrenren (2023). Hierarchical Coordinated Fast Frequency Control using Inverter-Based Resources for Next-Generation Power Grids. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/19650