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dc.contributor.authorSt-Pierre, Catherine 18:27:31 (GMT) 18:27:31 (GMT)
dc.description.abstractThis thesis presents an algorithm to find the local structure of intersections of plane curves. More precisely, we address the question of describing the scheme of the quotient ring of a bivariate zero-dimensional ideal $I\subseteq \mathbb K[x,y]$, \textit{i.e.} finding the points (maximal ideals of $\mathbb K[x,y]/I$) and describing the regular functions on those points. A natural way to address this problem is via Gr\"obner bases as they reduce the problem of finding the points to a problem of factorisation, and the sheaf of rings of regular functions can be studied with those bases through the division algorithm and localisation. Let $I\subseteq \mathbb K[x,y]$ be an ideal generated by $\mathcal F$, a subset of $\mathbb A[x,y]$ with $\mathbb A\hookrightarrow\mathbb K$ and $\mathbb K$ a field. We present an algorithm that features a quadratic convergence to find a Gr\"obner basis of $I$ or its primary component at the origin. We introduce an $\mathfrak m$-adic Newton iteration to lift the lexicographic Gr\"obner basis of any finite intersection of zero-dimensional primary components of $I$ if $\mathfrak m\subseteq \mathbb A$ is a \textit{good} maximal ideal. It relies on a structural result about the syzygies in such a basis due to Conca \textit{\&} Valla (2008), from which arises an explicit map between ideals in a stratum (or Gr\"obner cell) and points in the associated moduli space. We also qualify what makes a maximal ideal $\mathfrak m$ suitable for our filtration. When the field $\mathbb K$ is \textit{large enough}, endowed with an Archimedean or ultrametric valuation, and admits a fraction reconstruction algorithm, we use this result to give a complete $\mathfrak m$-adic algorithm to recover $\mathcal G$, the Gr\"obner basis of $I$. We observe that previous results of Lazard that use Hermite normal forms to compute Gr\"obner bases for ideals with two generators can be generalised to a set of $n$ generators. We use this result to obtain a bound on the height of the coefficients of $\mathcal G$ and to control the probability of choosing a \textit{good} maximal ideal $\mathfrak m\subseteq\mathbb A$ to build the $\mathfrak m$-adic expansion of $\mathcal G$. Inspired by Pardue (1994), we also give a constructive proof to characterise a Zariski open set of $\mathrm{GL}_2(\mathbb K)$ (with action on $\mathbb K[x,y]$) that changes coordinates in such a way as to ensure the initial term ideal of a zero-dimensional $I$ becomes Borel-fixed when $|\mathbb K|$ is sufficiently large. This sharpens our analysis to obtain, when $\mathbb A=\mathbb Z$ or $\mathbb A=k[t]$, a complexity less than cubic in terms of the dimension of $\mathbb Q[x,y]/\langle \mathcal G\rangle$ and softly linear in the height of the coefficients of $\mathcal G$. We adapt the resulting method and present the analysis to find the $\langle x,y\rangle$-primary component of $I$. We also discuss the transition towards other primary components via linear mappings, called \emph{untangling} and \emph{tangling}, introduced by van der Hoeven and Lecerf (2017). The two maps form one isomorphism to find points with an isomorphic local structure and, at the origin, bind them. We give a slightly faster tangling algorithm and discuss new applications of these techniques. We show how to extend these ideas to bivariate settings and give a bound on the arithmetic complexity for certain algebras.en
dc.publisherUniversity of Waterlooen
dc.subjectalgebraic geometryen
dc.subjectGroebner basisen
dc.subjectplane curvesen
dc.subjectNewton iterationen
dc.subjectHermite normal formen
dc.subjectHowell normal formen
dc.subjectNewton's methoden
dc.subjectaffine schemeen
dc.subjectzero-dimensional idealen
dc.subjectplane curvesen
dc.titleAlgorithms in Intersection Theory in the Planeen
dc.typeDoctoral Thesisen
dc.pendingfalse R. Cheriton School of Computer Scienceen Scienceen of Waterlooen
uws-etd.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
uws.contributor.advisorSchost, Éric
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Mathematicsen

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