mSLA-based 3D printing of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil - nano-hydroxyapatite composites for bone repair
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Structural bone allografts are used to treat critically sized segmental bone defects (CSBDs) as such defects are too large to heal naturally. Development of biomaterials with competent mechanical properties that can also facilitate new bone formation is a major challenge for CSBD repair. 3D printed synthetic bone grafts are a possible alternative to structural allografts if engineered to provide appropriate structure with sufficient mechanical properties. In this work, we fabricated a set of novel nanocomposite biomaterials consisting of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by using masked stereolithography (mSLA)-based 3D printing. The nanocomposite inks possess suitable rheological properties and good printability to print complex, anatomically-precise, ‘by design’ grafts. The addition of nHA to the AESO/PEGDA resin improved the tensile strength and fracture toughness of the mSLA printed nanocomposites, presumably due to small-scale reinforcement. By adding 10 vol% nHA, tensile strength, modulus and fracture toughness (KIc) were increased to 30.8 ± 1.2 MPa (58% increase), 1984.4 ± 126.7 MPa (144% increase) and 0.6 ± 0.1 MPa·m1/2 (42% increase), respectively (relative to the pure resin). The nanocomposites did not demonstrate significant hydrolytic, enzymatic or oxidative degradation when incubated for 28 days, assuring chemical and mechanical stability at early stages of implantation. Apatite nucleated and covered the nanocomposite surfaces within 7 days of incubation in simulated body fluid. Good viability and proliferation of differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were also observed on the nanocomposites. Taken all together, our nanocomposites demonstrate excellent bone-bioactivity and potential for bone defect repair.
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Dibakar Mondal, Zahra Haghpanah, Connor J. Huxman, Sophie Tanter, Duo Sun, Maud Gorbet, Thomas L. Willett (2021). mSLA-based 3D printing of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil - nano-hydroxyapatite composites for bone repair. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/18023
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