|dc.description.abstract||Road accidents cause thousands of injuries and losses of lives every year, ranking among the top lifetime odds of death causes. More than 90% of the traffic accidents are caused by human errors , including sight obstruction, failure to spot danger through inattention, speeding, expectation errors, and other reasons. In recent years, driver monitoring systems (DMS) have been rapidly studied and developed to be used in commercial vehicles to prevent human error-caused car crashes. A DMS is a vehicle safety system that monitors driver’s attention and warns if necessary. Such a system may contain multiple modules that detect the most accident-related human factors, such as drowsiness and distractions. Typical DMS approaches seek driver distraction cues either from vehicle acceleration and steering (vehicle-based approach), driver physiological signals (physiological approach), or driver behaviours (behavioural-based approach). Behavioural-based driver state monitoring has numerous advantages over vehicle-based and physiological-based counterparts, including fast responsiveness and non-intrusiveness. In addition, the recent breakthrough in deep learning enables high-level action and face recognition, expanding driver monitoring coverage and improving model performance. This thesis presents CareDMS, a behavioural approach-based driver monitoring system using deep learning methods. CareDMS consists of driver anomaly detection and classification, gaze estimation, and emotion recognition. Each approach is developed with state-of-the-art deep learning solutions to address the shortcomings of the current DMS functionalities. Combined with a classic drowsiness detection method, CareDMS thoroughly covers three major types of distractions: physical (hands-off-steering wheel), visual (eyes-off-road ahead), and cognitive (minds-off-driving).
There are numerous challenges in behavioural-based driver state monitoring. Current driver distraction detection methods either lack detailed distraction classification or unknown driver anomalies generalization. This thesis introduces a novel two-phase proposal and classification network architecture. It can suspect all forms of distracted driving and recognize driver actions simultaneously, which provide downstream DMS important information for warning level customization. Next, gaze estimation for driver monitoring is difficult as drivers tend to have severe head movements while driving. This thesis proposes a video-based neural network that jointly learns head pose and gaze dynamics together. The design significantly reduces per-head-pose gaze estimation performance variance compared to benchmarks. Furthermore, emotional driving such as road rage and sadness could seriously impact driving performance. However, individuals have various emotional expressions, which makes vision-based emotion recognition a challenging task. This work proposes an efficient and versatile multimodal fusion module that effectively fuses facial expression and human voice for emotion recognition. Visible advantages are demonstrated compared to using a single modality. Finally, a driver state monitoring system, CareDMS, is presented to convert the output of each functionality into a specific driver’s status measurement and integrates various measurements into the driver’s level of alertness.||en