A Comparative Analysis for Low-voltage, Low-power, and Low-energy Flip-flops
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Recently, several flip-flops have been proposed to increase their speed while reducing their power and energy consumption. Flip-flop power is dependent on data activity and in many applications data activity is between 5-15%. In such cases, significantly large clock power and energy is wasted. This thesis explores performance of seven advanced D flip-flops in terms of power, delay, and energy using 65nm CMOS process technology. The main objective of this research is to compare and contrast recent flip-flops under different voltage and data activity conditions, and draw conclusions. Transmission gate flip-flop (TGFF) is used as a reference flip-flop, and based on comparison result TGFF has shown power-performance trade-offs. 18-T single-phase clocked static flip-flops (18TSPC, TSPC18), and Low-power at low data activity flip-flop (LLFF) are the fastest alternatives suitable for higher performance. However, LLFF consumes more power on higher data activities, where as TSPC18 and 18TSPC consume more power on lower data activities. For lower data activities Topologically compressed flip-flop (TCFF) is power efficient amongst all, but poor in performance. Furthermore, post-layout simulation result illustrates that LLFF is the most energy efficient amongst all up to 20% of data activities, and 18TSPC is energy efficient for higher data activities.
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Yugal Kishore Maheshwari (2020). A Comparative Analysis for Low-voltage, Low-power, and Low-energy Flip-flops. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/16220