Tensor networks, quantum spin chains, and quantum field theory
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Understanding the universality class of continuous phase transition is of central importance in condensed matter physics. In one spatial dimension, the universal properties are encoded in the conformal field theory (CFT), which is in turn specified by the conformal data. In this thesis, we propose a systematic method to extract complete and accurate conformal data from the critical quantum spin chain based on the operator-state correspondence, thus completing the project initiated by Cardy and others in the 80's. Our method is based on the low-energy eigenstates of the critical quantum spin chain with periodic boundary conditions. First, scaling dimensions and conformal spins are extracted by the energies and momenta. Second, the primary states and conformal towers are identified by using the Koo-Saleur lattice Virasoro generators. Third, we propose a systematic way of identifying lattice operators with CFT operators, which enables us to compute operator product expansion coefficients from the low-energy eigenstates. Finally, the whole approach is generalized to critical quantum spin chains with antiperiodic boundary condition. In order to reduce finite-size corrections, we put forward the periodic uniform matrix product state (puMPS) algorithm which enables us to compute low-energy eigenstates of a critical quantum spin chain up to several hundreds of spins. Our method also enables us to study nonperturbatively the renormalization group flow between two CFTs as well as explore the emergence of extended symmetries beyond conformal symmetry. We test our method with the Ising model and its generalization due to O'Brien and Fendley. The latter model is featured by a tricritical point described by the tricritical Ising CFT and a line of critical points interpolating between the Ising CFT and the tricritical Ising CFT. We extract complete conformal data from the two models and find excellent agreement with analytical results. Furthermore, we study the spectral renormalization group flow between the two CFTs nonperturbatively. At the tricritical point, the underlying CFT has an extended symmetry, the superconformal symmetry. We propose lattice operators that correspond to supervirasoro generators and verify their action on low-energy eigenstates. In this way we study the emergence of superconformal symmetry in critical quantum spin chains.
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Yijian Zou (2020). Tensor networks, quantum spin chains, and quantum field theory. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/16049