Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorLiu, Xi
dc.contributor.authorDu, Huibin
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Zengkai
dc.contributor.authorCrittenden, John
dc.contributor.authorLahr, Michael L.
dc.contributor.authorMoreno-Cruz, Juan
dc.contributor.authorGuan, Dabo
dc.contributor.authorMi, Zhifu
dc.contributor.authorZuo, Jian 16:59:48 (GMT) 16:59:48 (GMT)
dc.descriptionThe final publication is available at Elsevier via © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
dc.description.abstractAt times, certain areas of China suffering from water shortages. While China's government is spurring innovation and infrastructure to help head off such problems, it may be that some water conservation could help as well. It is well-known that water is embodied in traded goods—so called “virtual water trade” (VWT). In China, it seems that many water-poor areas are perversely engaged in VWT. Further, China is engaging in the global trend of fragmentation in production, even as an interregional phenomenon. Perhaps something could be learned about conserving or reducing VWT, if we knew where and how it is practiced. Given some proximate causes, perhaps viable policies could be formulated. To this end, we employ China's multiregional input-output tables straddling two periods to trace the trade of a given region's three types of goods: local final goods, local intermediate goods, and goods that shipped to other regions and countries. We find that goods traded interregionally in China in 2012 embodied 30.4% of all water used nationwide. Nationwide, water use increased substantially over 2007–2012 due to greater shipment volumes of water-intensive products. In fact, as suspected, the rise in value chain-related trade became a major contributing factor. Coastal areas tended to be net receivers of VWT from interior provinces, although reasons differed, e.g. Shanghai received more to fulfill final demand (67.8% of net inflow) and Zhejiang for value-chain related trade (40.2% of net inflow). In sum, the variety of our findings reveals an urgent need to consider trade types and water scarcity when developing water resource allocation and conservation policies.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 71834004; 71673198; 71431005; 41571522; 71603179), and the National Science Foundation of the United States of America (Grant no. 1510510).en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectmultiregional input-output analysisen
dc.subjectvalue chainen
dc.subjectvirtual water chainen
dc.subjectnational water savingsen
dc.subjectembodied wateren
dc.titleCan virtual water trade save water resources?en
dcterms.bibliographicCitationLiu, X., Du, H., Zhang, Z., Crittenden, J., Lahr Michael, L., Moreno-Cruz, J., Guan, D., Mi, Z., Zuo, J., Can virtual water trade save water resources?, Water Research (2019), doi:
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Environmenten
uws.contributor.affiliation2School of Environment, Enterprise and Developmenten

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


University of Waterloo Library
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
519 888 4883

All items in UWSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

DSpace software

Service outages