Introducing a mechanically robust SPME sampler for the on-site sampling and extraction of a wide range of untargeted pollutants in environmental waters
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The present study introduces a mechanically robust, sealable SPME sampler for the on-site sampling and extraction of a wide range of untargeted pollutants in environmental waters. Spray-coating and dip coating methodologies were used to coat the surfaces of six stainless steel bolts with a layer of HLB/PAN particles, which served as the extractive substrate in the proposed device. In addition, this sampler was designed to withstand rough handling, long storage times, and various environmental conditions. In order to identify whether the sampler was able to stabilize extracted compounds for long periods of time, the effects of storage time and temperature were evaluated. The results of these tests showed no significant differences in the quantity and quality of the extracted chemicals following 12 days storage at room temperature, thus confirming the device's suitability for use at sampling sites that are far away from the laboratory facilities. The proposed device was also used to perform extraction and untargeted analyses of river waters in five different geographical locations. The constituent chemicals in the samplers were analyzed and determined using high-resolution HPLC-Orbitrap MS. Toxin and Toxin-Target Database was used as a reference database for toxins and environmental contaminants. Ultimately, over 80 tentative chemicals with widely varying hydrophobicities ranging within −2.43 < logP <11.9—including drugs, metabolites, wide ranges of toxins, pesticide, and insecticides—were identified in the samplers used in the different rivers. The log P values for the tentative analytes confirmed that the introduced device is suitable for the extraction and trace analysis of wide ranges of targeted and untargeted pollutants.
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Jonathan J. Grandy, Maryam Lashgari, Harmen Vander Heide, Justen J. Poole, Janusz Pawliszyn (2019). Introducing a mechanically robust SPME sampler for the on-site sampling and extraction of a wide range of untargeted pollutants in environmental waters. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/15403
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