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dc.contributor.authorHu, Bin
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Bo
dc.contributor.authorRickert, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorGómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto
dc.contributor.authorBojko, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorPawliszyn, Janusz
dc.contributor.authorYao, Zhong-Ping 15:57:20 (GMT) 15:57:20 (GMT)
dc.descriptionThe final publication is available at Elsevier via © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
dc.description.abstractElectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a commonly used technique for analysis of various samples. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is a simple and efficient technique that combines both sampling and sample preparation into one consolidated step, preconcentrating extracted analytes for ultra-sensitive analysis. Historically, SPME has been coupled with chromatography-based techniques for sample separation prior to analysis, however more recently, the chromatographic step has been omitted, with the SPME device directly coupled with the mass spectrometer. In this study, direct coupling of SPME with ESI-MS was developed, and extensively validated to quantitate ketamine from human urine, employing a practical experimental workflow and no extensive hardware modification to the equipment. Among the different fibers evaluated, SPME device coated with C18/benzenesulfonic acid particles was selected for the analysis due to its good selectivity and signal response. Different approaches, including desorption spray, dripping, desorption ESI and nano-ESI were attempted for elution and ionization of the analytes extracted using the SPME fibers. The results showed that the desorption spray and nano-ESI methods offered better signal response and signal duration than the others that were evaluated. The analytical performance of the SPME-nano-ESI-MS setup was excellent, including limit of detection (LOD) of 0.027 ng/mL, limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 ng/mL, linear range of 0.1–500.0 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9995) and recoveries of 90.8–109.4% with RSD 3.4–10.6% for three validation points at 4.0, 40.0 and 400.0 ng/mL, far better than the performance of conventional methods. The results herein presented, demonstrated that the direct coupling of SPME fibers with ESI-MS-based systems allowed for the simple and ultra-sensitive determination of analytes from raw samples such as human urine.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors acknowledge the financial supports from Beat Drugs Fund (BDF120020), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 81874306 and 21804053) and Hong Kong Research Grants Council (CRF Grant No. C5031-14E). The supports from the University Research Facility in Chemical and Environmental Analysis (UCEA) and the University Research Facility in Life Sciences (ULS) of Hong Kong Polytechnic University are also acknowledged.en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectsolid phase microextractionen
dc.subjectelectrospray ionization mass spectrometryen
dc.subjectdirect couplingen
dc.titleDirect coupling of solid phase microextraction with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: A Case study for detection of ketamine in urineen
dcterms.bibliographicCitationB. Hu, B. Zheng, D. Rickert, G.A. Gómez-Ríos, B. Bojko, J. Pawliszyn, Z.-P. Yao, Direct Coupling of Solid Phase Microextraction with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study for Detection of Ketamine in Urine, Analytica Chimica Acta,
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Scienceen

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