Quantum Walks and Pretty Good State transfer on Paths
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Quantum computing is believed to provide many advantages over traditional computing, particularly considering the speed at which computations can be performed. One of the challenges that needs to be resolved in order to construct a quantum computer is the transmission of information from one part of the computer to another. Quantum walks, the quantum analogues of classical random walks, provide one potential method for resolving this challenge. In this thesis, we use techniques from algebraic graph theory and number theory to analyze the mathematical model for continuous time quantum walks on graphs. For the continuous time quantum walk model, we define a transition operator, which is a function of a Hamiltonian. We focus on the cases where the adjacency matrix or the Laplacian of a graph act as the Hamiltionian. We mainly consider quantum walks on paths as a model for spin chains, which are the underlying basis of a quantum communication protocol. For communication to be efficient, we desire states to be transferred with high fidelity, a measure of the amount of similarity between the transmitted state and the received state. At the maximum fidelity of 1, we say we have achieved perfect state transfer. Examples of perfect state transfer are relatively rare, so the concept of pretty good state transfer was introduced as a natural relaxation, which exists if fidelities arbitrarily close to 1 are obtained. Our first main result is to characterize pretty good state transfer on paths. Previously, pretty good state transfer on paths was considered mainly for the end vertices, though results for both models indicated that if there was pretty good state transfer between the end vertices, then there was pretty good state transfer between internal vertices equidistant from each end. We complete the characterization by demonstrating, for the adjacency matrix model, a family of paths where pretty good state transfer exists between internal vertices but not between end vertices, and verifying that no other example exists. For the Laplacian model, we show that there are no paths with pretty good state transfer between internal vertices but not between the end vertices. Our second main result considers initial states involving multiple vertices. Under the adjacency matrix model, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for pretty good state transfer in a particular family of paths in terms of the eigenvalue support of the initial state. We also discuss recent results on fractional revival, which is another form of multiple qubit state transfer.
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Christopher Martin van Bommel (2019). Quantum Walks and Pretty Good State transfer on Paths. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14935