Topological Order and Universal Properties of Gapped Quantum Systems
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Phases of gapped quantum liquids are topologically ordered and have very interesting physical features that are completely robust against any local perturbation that do not close the bulk energy gap. These universal properties are hidden in the ground states of these systems, as different patterns of many-body long-range entanglement. In this thesis we study the universal properties of gapped quantum liquids from various perspectives. We propose the notion of Universal Wavefunction Overlap as a way of extracting almost complete information about the underlying entanglement structure in a system with topological order. We propose an efficient numerical methods to use these universal wavefunction overlaps as topological order parameters and demonstrate their usefulness with concrete numerical computations. In 2 + 1D these overlaps correspond to known quantities and contain information about anyonic particle excitations. We show that in 3 + 1D, these overlaps contain information about linked multi-string braiding processes, in particular three-string braiding. In the second part of this thesis, we study boundary physics of systems with topological order. We investigate the correspondence between edge and entanglement spectra for non-chiral topological systems in general and with the presence of extra symmetries and dualities. We also show that by local deformations of the fixed-point wavefunction on non- chiral topological orders, all possible edge theories can be extracted from its entanglement Hamiltonian. Finally we introduce the notion of fermionic gapped boundaries and see how the phase diagram of the simplest topological orders get significantly enriched.
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Heidar Moradi (2018). Topological Order and Universal Properties of Gapped Quantum Systems. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14157