Content-based Image Retrieval of Gigapixel Histopathology Scans: A Comparative Study of Convolution Neural Network, Local Binary Pattern, and Bag of visual Words
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The state-of-the-art image analysis algorithms offer a unique opportunity to extract semantically meaningful features from medical images. The advantage of this approach is automation in terms of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) of medical images. Such an automation leads to more reliable diagnostic decisions by clinicians as the direct beneficiary of these algorithms. Digital pathology (DP), or whole slide imaging (WSI), is a new avenue for image-based diagnosis in histopathology. WSI technology enables the digitization of traditional glass slides to ultra high-resolution digital images (or digital slides). Digital slides are more commonly used for CBIR research than other modalities of medical images due to their enormous size, increasing adoption among hospitals, and their various benefits offered to pathologists (e.g., digital telepathology). Pathology laboratories are under constant pressure to meet increasingly complex demands from hospitals. Many diseases (such as cancer) continue to grow which creates a pressing need to utilize existing innovative machine learning schemes to harness the knowledge contained in digital slides for more effective and efficient histopathology. This thesis provides a qualitative assessment of three popular image analysis techniques, namely Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Bag of visual Words (BoW), and Convolution Neural Networks (CNN) in their abilities to extract the discriminative features from gigapixel histopathology images. LBP and BoW are well-established techniques used in different image analysis problems. Over the last 5-10 years, CNN has become a frequent research topic in computer vision. CNN offers a domain-agnostic approach for the automatic extraction of discriminative image features, used for either classification or retrieval purposes. Therefore, it is imperative that this thesis gives more emphasis to CNN as a viable approach for the analysis of DP images. A new dataset, Kimia Path24 is specially designed and developed to facilitate the research in classification and CBIR of DP images. Kimia Path24 is used to measure the quality of image features extracted from LBP, BoW, and CNN; resulting in the best accuracy values of 41.33%, 54.67%, and 56.98% respectively. The results are somewhat surprising, suggesting that the handcrafted feature extraction algorithm, i.e., LBP can reach very close to the deep features extracted from CNN. It is unanticipated, considering that CNN requires much more computational resources and efforts for designing and fine-tuning. One of the conclusions is that CNN needs to be trained for the problem with a large number of training images to realize its comprehensive benefits. However, there are many situations where large, balanced, and the labeled dataset is not available; one such area is histopathology at present.
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Shivam Kalra (2018). Content-based Image Retrieval of Gigapixel Histopathology Scans: A Comparative Study of Convolution Neural Network, Local Binary Pattern, and Bag of visual Words. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/13226