Common Therapeutic Factors in Psychotherapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments
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Dozens of common therapeutic factors have been identified in psychotherapy research, but less attention has been devoted to integrating those factors into coherent theoretical frameworks. Frank and Frank (1991) proposed a comprehensive model with four therapeutic factors common across psychotherapies and other socially-sanctioned healing practices: emotionally charged and confiding relationships with healers, healing settings, persuasive treatment rationales, and specific procedures that engage clients in treatments. They held these factors as powerfully therapeutic because they mobilize hope in otherwise overwhelmed individuals. The current study used multi-group SEM to test Frank and Frank’s model across diverse treatment groups. Rogerian core conditions (empathy, care, genuineness), perceived practitioner credibility, quality of the healing setting, persuasiveness of treatment rationale, and client’s self-assessed hopefulness were measured in five groups of participants. The groups consisted of people receiving treatment for psychological issues from psychotherapists (n = 686) and various complementary and alternative medicine practitioners (n = 155), and those receiving treatment for pain-related issues from chiropractors (n = 518), massage therapists (n = 234), and acupuncturists (n = 100). Results from the cross-sectional model supported Frank and Frank’s hypothesis that their factors independently contribute to the prediction of outcomes across a broad range of healing practices and that their effects are partially mediated by hope. Results from longitudinal analyses based on psychotherapy (n = 138) and chiropractic (n = 134) groups (outcomes measured six to eight months later) showed partial support for Frank and Frank’s model.
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Alexander Milovanov (2017). Common Therapeutic Factors in Psychotherapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/12315