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Widefield Computational Biophotonic Imaging for Spatiotemporal Cardiovascular Hemodynamic Monitoring
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality, resulting in 17.3 million deaths per year globally. Although cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately 30% of deaths in the United States, many deleterious events can be mitigated or prevented if detected and treated early. Indeed, early intervention and healthier behaviour adoption can reduce the relative risk of first heart attacks by up to 80% compared to those who do not adopt new healthy behaviours. Cardiovascular monitoring is a vital component of disease detection, mitigation, and treatment. The cardiovascular system is an incredibly dynamic system that constantly adapts to internal and external stimuli. Monitoring cardiovascular function and response is vital for disease detection and monitoring. Biophotonic technologies provide unique solutions for cardiovascular assessment and monitoring in naturalistic and clinical settings. These technologies leverage the properties of light as it enters and interacts with the tissue, providing safe and rapid sensing that can be performed in many different environments. Light entering into human tissue undergoes a complex series of absorption and scattering events according to both the illumination and tissue properties. The field of quantitative biomedical optics seeks to quantify physiological processes by analysing the remitted light characteristics relative to the controlled illumination source. Drawing inspiration from contact-based biophotonic sensing technologies such as pulse oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy, we explored the feasibility of widefield hemodynamic assessment using computational biophotonic imaging. Specifically, we investigated the hypothesis that computational biophotonic imaging can assess spatial and temporal properties of pulsatile blood flow across large tissue regions. This thesis presents the design, development, and evaluation of a novel photoplethysmographic imaging system for assessing spatial and temporal hemodynamics in major pulsatile vasculature through the sensing and processing of subtle light intensity fluctuations arising from local changes in blood volume. This system co-integrates methods from biomedical optics, electronic control, and biomedical image and signal processing to enable non-contact widefield hemodynamic assessment over large tissue regions. A biophotonic optical model was developed to quantitatively assess transient blood volume changes in a manner that does not require a priori information about the tissue's absorption and scattering characteristics. A novel automatic blood pulse waveform extraction method was developed to encourage passive monitoring. This spectral-spatial pixel fusion method uses physiological hemodynamic priors to guide a probabilistic framework for learning pixel weights across the scene. Pixels are combined according to their signal weight, resulting in a single waveform. Widefield hemodynamic imaging was assessed in three biomedical applications using the aforementioned developed system. First, spatial vascular distribution was investigated across a sample with highly varying demographics for assessing common pulsatile vascular pathways. Second, non-contact biophotonic assessment of the jugular venous pulse waveform was assessed, demonstrating clinically important information about cardiac contractility function in a manner which is currently assessed through invasive catheterization. Lastly, non-contact biophotonic assessment of cardiac arrhythmia was demonstrated, leveraging the system's ability to extract strong hemodynamic signals for assessing subtle fluctuations in the waveform. This research demonstrates that this novel approach for computational biophotonic hemodynamic imaging offers new cardiovascular monitoring and assessment techniques, which can enable new scientific discoveries and clinical detection related to cardiovascular function.
Cite this work
Robert Amelard (2017). Widefield Computational Biophotonic Imaging for Spatiotemporal Cardiovascular Hemodynamic Monitoring. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/12066