Investigating Driver Experience and Augmented Reality Head-Up Displays in Autonomous Vehicles
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Autonomous driving is on the horizon. Partially automated vehicles recently started to emerge in the market, and companies are dedicated to bringing more automated driving capabilities to the vehicles in the near future. Over the past twenty years, human factors research has increased our understanding of driver behavior and human-vehicle interaction, as well as human-automation interaction considerably. However, as the technological developments accelerate, there is an urgent need to conduct research to understand the challenges of driving a semi-automated vehicle, the role of cognitive and social factors and driver characteristics, and how interactive technology can be used to increase driving safety in this context. This thesis was an attempt to address some of these challenges. In this work, we present two studies on human factors of automated driving. In the first study, we present the results of a survey conducted with Tesla drivers who have been using partially automated driving features of Tesla cars. Our results revealed that current users of this technology are early adopters. Automation failures were common, but drivers were comfortable in dealing with these situations. Additionally, Tesla drivers have high levels of trust in the automated driving capability of their vehicles, and their trust increases as they experience these features more. The results also revealed that drivers don’t use owner manuals, and seek out information about their cars by using online sources. The majority of Tesla drivers check multiple information sources when their car software receives an update. Overall these findings show that driver needs are changing as the vehicles become smarter and connected. In the second study, we focused on a future technology, augmented reality head-up displays, and explored how this technology can fit into the smart, connected and autonomous vehicle context. Specifically, we conducted an experiment looking into how these displays can be used to monitor the status of automation in automated driving. Participants watched driving videos enhanced with augmented reality cues. Results showed that drivers adjust their trust in the automated vehicle better when information about the vehicle’s sensing capabilities are presented using augmented reality cues, and they have positive attitudes towards these systems. However, there were no major safety-related benefits associated with using these displays. Overall, this work provides several contributions to the knowledge about human-automation interaction in automated driving.
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Murat Dikmen (2017). Investigating Driver Experience and Augmented Reality Head-Up Displays in Autonomous Vehicles. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/11973