Exploring the Interconnectedness between Work hours, Income Inadequacy, Time Adequacy, Leisure Time and Wellbeing within the Context of the Canadian Index of Wellbeing: A Case study of Victoria, British Columbia
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Sustainability has consistently been linked to the wellbeing of the economy, society, and the environment. It has been viewed as a framework, which focuses on the interconnectedness of different systems, and activities that influence each other with the aim of enhancing wellbeing. These interdependencies of systems and activities are crucial for human wellbeing as they act as an impetus that strengthens and enhances wellbeing, and reflects the multiple factors that increase or diminishes wellbeing as well. In the light of this, this research aims to examine how the relationship between work hours, income inadequacy, time adequacy and leisure time influences wellbeing. It relied on archived data surveyed from Victoria, British Columbia by the Canadian Index of wellbeing (CIW). To establish a quantitative correlation between these factors of wellbeing, a subsample of 952 people who work for pay was drawn from the CIW dataset. The data were analyzed with SPSS statistical tool using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. The results showed a statistically significant association between work hours and time adequacy (r = -.183, p<.001); time adequacy and mental/physical wellbeing (r= .429, r= .321, p<.001); satisfaction with leisure time and mental/physical wellbeing (r= .466, r= .503, p<.001). These results indicate that as the participants’ work hours increased, they had less than adequate time for other important activities e.g. time to sleep, socialize and to maintain physical fitness. Further, their state of mental and physical wellbeing increased as their time adequacy and satisfaction with leisure time increased and vice-versa. Other indicators influenced by time adequacy are sleep hours, physical activities, unpaid care to dependants, and vacation days were found to be statistically significant with weekly work hours. The overall outcome of the results indicates health and wellbeing are closely related positively or negatively with human activities and lifestyle such as time adequacy for other activities outside of work, time devoted to sleep, physical activities and leisure activities. This research contributes to the body of knowledge of the Canadian Index of Wellbeing (CIW) by underlining the interconnections that exist between the indicators and domains of the CIW selected for this study. In addition, this research would help influence policies and decisions, as policy makers would identify the factors driving wellbeing within the context of this research, and tailor interventions to minimize the pressures emanating from the factors driving wellbeing. In addition, this research stresses the importance of the sustainability of capital assets in achieving wellbeing. Keywords: Wellbeing, Indicators, Domains, Canadian Index of Wellbeing, Work hours, Time adequacy, Work hours, Income, Leisure time.
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Funlola Adewunmi (2017). Exploring the Interconnectedness between Work hours, Income Inadequacy, Time Adequacy, Leisure Time and Wellbeing within the Context of the Canadian Index of Wellbeing: A Case study of Victoria, British Columbia. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/11821