|dc.description.abstract||In this thesis, we experimentally test fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, namely
non-locality (in the form of three new families of Bell's inequalities) and the symmetry of
envariance. To accomplish these we use a Sagnac source of polarization entangled photon
In chapters one and two we discuss the relevant background information in quantum
information theory, nonlinear optics, experimental realization of polarization entangled
photons and a trouble-shooting and maintenance guide for a Saganc source.
In chapter three we experiment with a set of three newly derived families of Bell's
inequalities. These three families are predicted to yield the largest volume of violation of
the local hidden variable models (LHVM). Our experimental results are in good agreement
with those predictions and therefore, represent the largest volume of experimental violation
of LHVM to date. We showed a violation of up to 30 sigma from what is predicted by LHVM,
and our results followed closely to the predictions of quantum mechanics.
In chapter four we experimentally test envariance, an assisted-symmetry exhibited by
specifi c quantum systems. Envariance is a fundamental property in the quantum world that
has lacked, until now, extensive experimental study. The symmetry has ramifi cations in the
foundations of quantum mechanics, and plays an integral role in a proof of Born's rule .
Our results serve as a benchmark the property of envariance. We show that experimental
quantum states can be (99.66+/- 0.04)% envariant over a wide range of transformations, as
measured using the average quantum fi delity , and (99.963 +/- 0.005)% as measured using
a modifi ed average Bhattacharya Coeffi cient , a measure of the overlap of two probability