|dc.description.abstract||Volatiles are a fundamental component of the Magmatic-Hydrothermal model of platinum group element (PGE) ore deposition for PGE deposits in layered mafic intrusions such as Bushveld and Stillwater. Volatiles have the potential to complex with PGEs in silicate melts and hydrothermal fluids, increasing PGE solubility; in order to assess the models of PGE ore deposition reliable estimates on the solubilities in the various magmatic phases must be known. However, experimental studies on the solubility and partitioning behaviour of PGEs in mafic magmatic-hydrothermal systems under relevant conditions are sparse, and the data that do exist produce conflicting results and new or adapted experimental methods must be applied to investigate these systems. Experimental results are presented here, investigating the effect of volatiles (i.e. H2O, Cl and CO2) on Pt and Ir solubility in a haplobasaltic melt and fluid-melt partitioning of Pt between an aqueous fluid and a haplobasaltic melt under magmatic conditions using a sealed-capsule technique. Also included are the details of the development of a novel experimental technique to observe fluid-melt partitioning in mafic systems and application of the method to the fluid-melt partition of Pt.
Solubility experiments were conducted to assess the effect of volatiles on Pt and Ir solubility in a haplobasaltic melt of dry diopside-anorthite eutectic composition at 1523K and 0.2GPa. Synthetic glass powder of an anhydrous, 1-atm eutectic, diopside-anorthite (An42-Di58) haplobasalt composition was sealed in a platinum or platinum-iridium alloy capsule and was allowed to equilibrate with the noble metal capsule and a source of volatiles (i.e. H2O, H2O-Cl or H2O-CO2) at experimental conditions. All experiments were run in an internally-heated pressure vessel equipped with a rapid quench device, with oxygen fugacity controlled by the water activity and intrinsic hydrogen fugacity of the autoclave (MnO-Mn3O4). The resultant crystal- and bubble-free run product glasses were analyzed using a combination of laser ablation ICP-MS and bulk solution isotope-dilution ICP-MS to determine equilibrium solubilities of Pt and Ir and investigate the formation and contribution of micronuggets to overall bulk determined concentrations.
In water-bearing experiments, it was determined that water content did not have an intrinsic effect on Pt or Ir solubility for water contents between 0.9 wt. % and 4.4 wt. % (saturation). Water content controlled the oxygen fugacity of the experiment and the resulting variations in oxygen fugacity, and the corresponding solubilities of Pt and Ir, indicate that over geologically relevant conditions both Pt and Ir are dissolved primarily in the 2+ valence state. Pt data suggest minor influence of Pt4+ at higher oxygen fugacities; however, there is no evidence of higher valence states for Ir. The ability of the sealed capsule technique to produce micronugget-free run product glasses in water-only experiments, allowed the solubility of Pt to be determined in hydrous haplobasalt at lower oxygen fugacities (and concentrations) then was previously observed. Pt and Ir solubility can be represented as a function of oxygen fugacity (bars) by the following equations:
In Cl-bearing experiments, experimental products from short run duration (<96hrs) experiments contained numerous micronuggets, preventing accurate determination of platinum and iridium solubility. Longer run duration experiments showed decreasing amounts of micronuggets, allowing accurate determination of solubility; results indicate that under the conditions studied chlorine has no discernable effect on Pt solubility in the silicate melt from 0.6 to 2.75 wt. % Cl (saturation). Over the same conditions, a systematic increase in Ir solubility is found with increasing Cl content; however, the observed increase is within the analytical variation/error and is therefore not conclusive. If there is an effect of Cl on PGE solubility the effect is minor resulting in increased Ir solubilities of 60% at chlorine saturation.
However, the abundance of micronuggets in short run duration experiments, which decreases in abundance with time and increases with Cl-content, offers compelling evidence that Cl-bearing fluids have the capacity to transport significant amounts of Pt and Ir under magmatic conditions. It is suggested that platinum and iridium dissolved within the Cl-bearing fluid are left behind as the fluid dissolves into the melt during the heating stages of the experiment, leaving small amounts of Pt and Ir along the former particle boundaries. With increasing run duration, the metal migrates back to the capsule walls decreasing the amount of micronuggets contained within the glass. Estimates based on this model, using mass-balance calculations on the excess amount of Pt and Ir in the run product glasses (i.e. above equilibrium solubility) in short duration experiments, indicate estimated Pt and Ir concentrations in the Cl-bearing fluid ranging from tens to a few hundred ppm, versus ppb levels in the melt. Respective apparent (equilibrium has not been established) partition coefficients (D,fluid-melt) of 1x10^3 to 4x10^3 and 300-1100 were determined for Pt and Ir in Cl-bearing fluids; suggesting that Cl-bearing fluids can be highly efficient at enriching and transporting PGE in mafic magmatic-hydrothermal ore-forming systems.
Platinum solubility was also determined as a function of CO2 content in a hydrous haplobasalt at controlled oxygen fugacity. Using the same sealed capsule techniques and melt composition as for H2O and Cl, a hydrous haplobasaltic melt was allowed to equilibrate with the platinum capsule and a CO2-source (CaCO3 or silver oxalate) at 1523 K and 0.2 GPa. Experiments were conducted with a water content of approximately 1 wt. %, fixing the log oxygen fugacity (bars) between -5.3 and -6.1 (log NNO = -6.95 @ 1573 K and 0.2 GPa). Carbon dioxide contents in the run product glasses ranged from 800-2500 ppm; and over these conditions, CO2 was found to have a negligible effect on Pt solubility in the silicate melt. Analogous to the Cl-bearing experiments, bulk concentrations of Pt in CO2-bearing experiments increased with increasing CO2 content due to micronugget formation. Apparent Pt concentrations in the H2O-CO2 fluid phase, prior to fluid dissolution, were calculated to be 1.6 to 42 ppm, resulting in apparent partition coefficients(D,fluid-melt) of 1.5 x 10^2 to 4.2 x 10^3, increasing with increasing mol CO2:H2O up to approximately 0.15, after which increasing CO2 content does not further increase partitioning.
As well, a novel technique was developed and applied to assess the partitioning of Pt between an aqueous fluid and a hydrous diopside-anorthite melt under magmatic conditions. Building upon the sealed-capsule technique utilized for solubility studies, a method was developed by adding a seed crystal to the capsule along with a silicate melt and fluid. By generating conditions favourable to crystal growth, and growing the crystal from the fluid, it is possible to entrap fluid inclusions in the growing crystal, allowing direct sampling of the fluid phase at the conditions of the experiment. Using a diopside seed crystal with the diopside-anorthite eutectic melt, it was possible to control diopside crystallization by controlling the temperature, thus allowing control of the crystallization and fluid inclusion entrapment conditions. Subsequent laser ablation ICP-MS analysis of the fluid inclusions allowed fluid–melt partition coefficients of Pt to be determined.
Synthetic glass powder of an anhydrous, 1-atm eutectic, diopside-anorthite (An42¬Di58) haplobasalt composition (with ppm levels of Ba, Cs, Sr and Rb added as internal standards), water and a diopside seed crystal were sealed in a platinum capsule and were allowed to equilibrate at experimental conditions. Water was added in amounts to maintain a free fluid phase throughout the experiment, and the diopside crystal was separated from the melt. All experiments were run in an internally heated pressure vessel equipped with a rapid-quench device, with oxygen fugacity controlled by the water activity and intrinsic hydrogen fugacity of the autoclave (MnO-Mn3O4). Experiments were allowed to equilibrate (6-48 hrs) at experimental conditions (i.e. 1498K, 0.2 GPa, fluid+melt+diopside stable) before temperature was dropped (i.e. to 1483K) to induce crystallization. Crystals were allowed to grow for a period of 18-61 hours, prior to rapid isobaric quenching to 293K at the conclusion of the experiment. Experimental run products were a crystal- and bubble-free glass and the diopside seed crystal with a fluid-inclusion-bearing overgrowth. Analysis of fluid inclusions provides initial solubility estimates of Pt in a H2O fluid phase at 1488 K and 0.2 GPa at or near ppm levels and fluid melt partition coefficients ranging from 2 – 48. This indicates substantial metal enrichment in the fluid phase in the absence of major ligands such as carbonate or chlorine.
The results of this study indicate that the volatiles studied (i.e. H2O, CO2, and Cl) do not have a significant effect on Pt and Ir solubility in a haplobasaltic melt at magmatic conditions. These results suggest that complexing of Pt and Ir by OH, Cl, and carbonate species in a haplobasaltic melt is insignificant and the presence of these volatiles will not result in significantly increased PGE contents over their dry counterparts, as has been suggested. Preliminary evidence of minor Cl-complexing of Ir is presented; however, resulting in only a slight increase (<100%) in Ir solubility at Cl-saturation. Significant partitioning of Pt and Ir into a fluid phase at magmatic conditions has been demonstrated; with estimates of fluid-haplobasaltic melt partition coefficients increasing from 1x10^1 for pure water to up to an apparent 4x10^3 with the addition of Cl or CO2 to the system. This result indicates complexing of Pt and Ir with OH< HxCOy≤ Cl. Using these estimates, Cl- or CO2-bearing magmatic fluids can be highly efficient at enriching and transporting platinum group elements (PGEs) in mafic magmatic-hydrothermal ore-forming systems.||en