|Mass-selected infrared multiple photon spectroscopy (IRMPD), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) kinetic experiments, RRKM and electronic structure calculations have been performed in order to propose a complex mechanism involving the formation of the proton-bound dimer of water (H5O2+) from 1,1,3,3-tetrafluorodimethyl ether. It has been found that the reaction is facilitated by a series of sequential exothermic bimolecular ion-molecule reactions. Evidence for the dominant mechanistic pathway involving the reaction of CF2H-O=CHF+, an ion of m/z 99, with water is presented. The primary channel occurs via nucleophilic attack of water on the ion of m/z 99 (CF2H-O=CHF+), to lose formyl fluoride and yield protonated difluoromethanol (m/z 69). Association of a second water molecule with protonated difluoromethanol generates a reactive intermediate which decomposes via a 1,4-elimination to release hydrogen fluoride and yield the proton-bound dimer of water and formyl fluoride (m/z 67). The 1,4-elimination of hydrogen fluoride is found to be strongly supported by the results of both RRKM theory and electronic structure calculations. Lastly, the elimination of formyl fluoride occurs by the association of a third water molecule to produce H5O2+ (m/z 37). The most probable isomeric forms of the ions with m/z 99 and 69 were found using IRMPD spectroscopy and electronic structure theory calculations. Thermochemical information for reactant, transition and product species was obtained using MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ//MP2(full)/6-31G(d) level of theory.
Ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) interactions, resulting from the association of ammonia and two of the protonated methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine and theophylline, have been characterized using mass-selected IRMPD and electronic structure calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. It was found that the formation of a proton-bound dimer (PBD) of caffeine and ammonia was elusive under the experimental conditions. The low binding energy of the caffeine and ammonia PBD is responsible for the perceived difficulty in obtaining an IRMPD spectrum. The IRMPD spectrum of the PBD of theophylline and ammonia was obtained and revealed bidentate IHB formation within the complex, which greatly increased the binding energy relative to the most stable isomer of the PBD of caffeine and ammonia. The IRMPD spectra of the protonated forms of caffeine and theophylline have also obtained. The spectrum of protonated caffeine showed the dominant existence of a single isomer, whereas the spectrum of protonated theophylline showed a mixture of isomers. The mixture of isomers of protonated theophylline resulted as a consequence of proton-transport catalysis (PTC) occurring within the PBD of theophylline and ammonia. All calculated harmonic spectra have been produced at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory with fundamental frequencies scaled by 0.9679; calculated anharmonic spectra have also been provided at the same level of theory and were found to greatly improve the match with the IRMPD spectra obtained in all cases.
Ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) interactions, resulting from the association of caffeine and theophylline with their protonated counterparts, forming proton-bound homodimers, have been characterized using mass-selected IRMPD and electronic structure calculations at the MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. It is found that the IRMPD spectra of the proton-bound homodimers of caffeine and theophylline are complicated resulting from the existence of several pairs of enantiomers separated by a narrow range of relative Gibbs free energies (298 K) of 15.6 and 18.2 kJ mol-1, respectively. The IRMPD spectrum of the proton-bound homodimer of theophylline is dominated by a unique isomer facilitated by formation of a bidentate IHB. Formation of this interaction lowers the relative Gibbs free energy of the ion to 9.75 kJ mol-1 below that of the most favourable pair of enantiomers. The IRMPD spectrum of the PBD of caffeine is complicated by the existence of at least two pairs of enantiomers with the strong likelihood of the spectral contributions of a third pair existing. The most favourable enantiomeric pair involves the formation of a O-H+⋯O IHB. However, verification of a pair of enantiomeric PBDs containing a N-H+⋯O IHB is also observed in the IRMPD spectrum of the PBD of caffeine due to the presence of three free carbonyl stretching modes located at 1731, 1751 and 1785 cm-1.
The mass-selected IRMPD spectra of the sodium cation-bound dimers (SCBD) of caffeine and theophylline also have been obtained. Both the mass-selected IRMPD spectra and electronic structure calculations predict the most likely structure of the SCBDs of caffeine and theophylline to form by an efficient O⋯Na+⋯O interaction between C=O functional groups possessed by each monomer. The frequencies of the C=O-Na+ stretch are found to be nearly identical in the IRMPD spectra for both of the SCBDs of caffeine and theophylline at 1644 and 1646 cm-1, respectively. However, the degenerate free C=O symmetric and asymmetric stretches for the SCBDs of caffeine and theophylline found at 1732 and 1758 cm^(-1), respectively, demonstrating a red-shift for caffeine possibly linked to a steric interaction absent in theophylline. Free rotation about the O⋯Na+⋯O bond is found to greatly decrease the complexity of the IRMPD spectra of the SCBDs of caffeine and theophylline and demonstrates excellent agreement between the IRMPD and calculated spectra. Electronic structure calculations have been done at the MP2(full)/aug-cc-pCVTZ/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory using the aug-cc-pCVTZ basis set for Na+ and all Na+-interacting heterotatoms, and the 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set for all non-interacting atoms within the SCBDs, in order to provide accurate electronic energies.
Currently, installation and implementation of a pulsed electrospray high pressure ion source mated to an existing high pressure mass spectrometer (HPMS) is underway. The new ion source will greatly increase the range of possibilities for the study of ion-molecule reactions in the McMahon laboratory. One of the unique features of the new design is the incorporation of a gas-tight electrospray interface, allowing for more possibilities than only the study of cluster-ion equilibria involving hydration (H2On⋯S+), where S+ is an ion produced by electrospray. Other small prototypical biological molecules such as amines and thiols can be used without concern for the toxicity of these species. Another unique design feature allows electrosprayed ions to associate with neutral solvent species in an electric field free reaction chamber (RC). This ensures that values of equilibrium constants determined are truly representative of ions in states of thermochemical equilibrium. The existing HPMS in the McMahon laboratory is limited to the study of small volatile organic molecules. The new ion source will permit the exploration of systems involving non-volatile species, doubly charged ions and many biologically relevant molecules such as amino acids, peptides, nucleobases and carbohydrates.