dc.contributor.author Kelly, Thomas dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-09 13:14:36 (GMT) dc.date.available 2019-08-09 13:14:36 (GMT) dc.date.issued 2019-08-09 dc.date.submitted 2019-08-07 dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14862 dc.description.abstract Many of the most celebrated and influential results in graph coloring, such as Brooks' Theorem and Vizing's Theorem, relate a graph's chromatic number to its clique number or maximum degree. Currently, several of the most important and enticing open problems in coloring, such as Reed's $\omega, \Delta, \chi$ Conjecture, follow this theme. en This thesis both broadens and deepens this classical paradigm. In Part~1, we tackle list-coloring problems in which the number of colors available to each vertex $v$ depends on its degree, denoted $d(v)$, and the size of the largest clique containing it, denoted $\omega(v)$. We make extensive use of the probabilistic method in this part. We conjecture the list-local version'' of Reed's Conjecture, that is every graph is $L$-colorable if $L$ is a list-assignment such that $$|L(v)| \geq \lceil (1 - \varepsilon)(d(v) + 1) + \varepsilon\omega(v))\rceil$$ for each vertex $v$ and $\varepsilon \leq 1/2$, and we prove this for $\varepsilon \leq 1/330$ under some mild additional assumptions. We also conjecture the $\mathrm{mad}$ version'' of Reed's Conjecture, even for list-coloring. That is, for $\varepsilon \leq 1/2$, every graph $G$ satisfies $$\chi_\ell(G) \leq \lceil (1 - \varepsilon)(\mad(G) + 1) + \varepsilon\omega(G)\rceil,$$ where $\mathrm{mad}(G)$ is the maximum average degree of $G$. We prove this conjecture for small values of $\varepsilon$, assuming $\omega(G) \leq \mathrm{mad}(G) - \log^{10}\mathrm{mad}(G)$. We actually prove a stronger result that improves bounds on the density of critical graphs without large cliques, a long-standing problem, answering a question of Kostochka and Yancey. In the proof, we use a novel application of the discharging method to find a set of vertices for which any precoloring can be extended to the remainder of the graph using the probabilistic method. Our result also makes progress towards Hadwiger's Conjecture: we improve the best known bound on the chromatic number of $K_t$-minor free graphs by a constant factor. We provide a unified treatment of coloring graphs with small clique number. We prove that for $\Delta$ sufficiently large, if $G$ is a graph of maximum degree at most $\Delta$ with list-assignment $L$ such that for each vertex $v\in V(G)$, $$|L(v)| \geq 72\cdot d(v)\min\left\{\sqrt{\frac{\ln(\omega(v))}{\ln(d(v))}}, \frac{\omega(v)\ln(\ln(d(v)))}{\ln(d(v))}, \frac{\log_2(\chi(G[N(v)]) + 1)}{\ln(d(v))}\right\}$$ and $d(v) \geq \ln^2\Delta$, then $G$ is $L$-colorable. This result simultaneously implies three famous results of Johansson from the 90s, as well as the following new bound on the chromatic number of any graph $G$ with $\omega(G)\leq \omega$ and $\Delta(G)\leq \Delta$ for $\Delta$ sufficiently large: $$\chi(G) \leq 72\Delta\sqrt{\frac{\ln\omega}{\ln\Delta}}.$$ In Part~2, we introduce and develop the theory of fractional coloring with local demands. A fractional coloring of a graph is an assignment of measurable subsets of the $[0, 1]$-interval to each vertex such that adjacent vertices receive disjoint sets, and we think of vertices demanding'' to receive a set of color of comparatively large measure. We prove and conjecture local demands versions'' of various well-known coloring results in the $\omega, \Delta, \chi$ paradigm, including Vizing's Theorem and Molloy's recent breakthrough bound on the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs. The highlight of this part is the local demands version'' of Brooks' Theorem. Namely, we prove that if $G$ is a graph and $f : V(G) \rightarrow [0, 1]$ such that every clique $K$ in $G$ satisfies $\sum_{v\in K}f(v) \leq 1$ and every vertex $v\in V(G)$ demands $f(v) \leq 1/(d(v) + 1/2)$, then $G$ has a fractional coloring $\phi$ in which the measure of $\phi(v)$ for each vertex $v\in V(G)$ is at least $f(v)$. This result generalizes the Caro-Wei Theorem and improves its bound on the independence number, and it is tight for the 5-cycle. dc.language.iso en en dc.publisher University of Waterloo en dc.subject graph coloring en dc.subject list coloring en dc.subject fractional coloring en dc.subject probabilistic method en dc.subject local version en dc.subject Reed's Conjecture en dc.subject clique number en dc.title Cliques, Degrees, and Coloring: Expanding the ω, Δ, χ paradigm en dc.type Doctoral Thesis en dc.pending false uws-etd.degree.department Combinatorics and Optimization en uws-etd.degree.discipline Combinatorics and Optimization en uws-etd.degree.grantor University of Waterloo en uws-etd.degree Doctor of Philosophy en uws.contributor.advisor Postle, Luke uws.contributor.affiliation1 Faculty of Mathematics en uws.published.city Waterloo en uws.published.country Canada en uws.published.province Ontario en uws.typeOfResource Text en uws.peerReviewStatus Unreviewed en uws.scholarLevel Graduate en
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