Methods for parallel quantum circuit synthesis, fault-tolerant quantum RAM, and quantum state tomography
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The pace of innovation in quantum information science has recently exploded due to the hope that a quantum computer will be able to solve a multitude of problems that are intractable using classical hardware. Current quantum devices are in what has been termed the ``noisy intermediate-scale quantum'', or NISQ stage. Quantum hardware available today with 50-100 physical qubits may be among the first to demonstrate a quantum advantage. However, there are many challenges to overcome, such as dealing with noise, lowering error rates, improving coherence times, and scalability. We are at a time in the field where minimization of resources is critical so that we can run our algorithms sooner rather than later. Running quantum algorithms ``at scale'' incurs a massive amount of resources, from the number of qubits required to the circuit depth. A large amount of this is due to the need to implement operations fault-tolerantly using error-correcting codes. For one, to run an algorithm we must be able to efficiently read in and output data. Fault-tolerantly implementing quantum memories may become an input bottleneck for quantum algorithms, including many which would otherwise yield massive improvements in algorithm complexity. We will also need efficient methods for tomography to characterize and verify our processes and outputs. Researchers will require tools to automate the design of large quantum algorithms, to compile, optimize, and verify their circuits, and to do so in a way that minimizes operations that are expensive in a fault-tolerant setting. Finally, we will also need overarching frameworks to characterize the resource requirements themselves. Such tools must be easily adaptable to new developments in the field, and allow users to explore tradeoffs between their parameters of interest. This thesis contains three contributions to this effort: improving circuit synthesis using large-scale parallelization; designing circuits for quantum random-access memories and analyzing various time/space tradeoffs; using the mathematical structure of discrete phase space to select subsets of tomographic measurements. For each topic the theoretical work is supplemented by a software package intended to allow others researchers to easily verify, use, and expand upon the techniques herein.
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Olivia Di Matteo (2019). Methods for parallel quantum circuit synthesis, fault-tolerant quantum RAM, and quantum state tomography. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14371
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