Now showing items 1-5 of 5
An Identity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory Examination of the Role of Identity in Health Behaviour and Behavioural Regulation
(University of Waterloo, 2005)
The self has been identified as the ?psychological apparatus that allows individuals to think consciously about themselves? (Leary & Price Tangney, 2003, p. 8). Further, the self has been identified as a worthwhile construct of investigation in relation to health behaviour (Contrada & Ashmore, 1999). Two self-related variables that have been useful in the study of health behaviour are identity (e. g. Anderson, Cychosz, & Franke, 1998; Petosa, Suminski & Hortz, 2003; Storer, Cychosz, & Anderson, 1997) and self-efficacy (Maddux, Brawley & Boykin, 1995). Identity Theory posits that individuals regulate their behaviour in a manner that is consistent with their goal identity (Gecas & Burke, 2003). Social Cognitive Theory provides a means of measuring social cognitions that may be important in behavioural regulation relative to identity. Further, self-efficacy beliefs may influence individuals? persistence at aligning their identity and behaviour. Research to date has investigated the link between identity and exercise (e. g. Anderson, Cychosz & Franke, 1998; Petosa, et al. , 2003). Further, researchers are beginning to investigate the link between identity and other health behaviours (e. g. Armitage & Conner, 1999; Kendzierski and Costello, 2004; Storer, Cychosz, & Andersen, 1997). However, research has not utilized the predictive frameworks offered by Identity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to investigate the relationships between identity, behaviour and behavioural regulation. <br /><br /> Study One investigated the role of identity and self-efficacy beliefs in the maintenance of vigorous physical activity. Results were consistent with both Identity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. Individuals who strongly identified with the runner identity expressed stronger task and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs. They also exercised more frequently and for longer durations than did those who only moderately identified with running. <br /><br /> Study Two further explored the relationship between exercise identity, exercise behaviour and the self-regulatory processes involved in behavioural regulation. Identity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory were used as guiding frameworks for this investigation. High and moderate exercise identity groups were compared in term of their affective and cognitive reactions to a hypothetical behavioural challenge to exercise identity. Consistent with Identity Theory, results indicated that participants appeared to be regulating their behaviour in a manner that was consistent with their exercise identity. Specifically, in response to the behavioural challenge to identity, high exercise identity participants, in contrast to their moderate counterparts, showed (a) less positive and (b) greater negative affect about the challenge, (c) higher self-regulatory efficacy for future exercise under the same challenging conditions, (d) stronger intentions for this future exercise, as well as for (e) using self-regulatory strategies to manage the challenging conditions and (f) intending to exercise more frequently under those conditions. <br /><br /> Study Three investigated whether identity with healthy eating could also be useful in understanding behaviour and behavioural regulation. Similar to Study Two, extreme healthy-eater identity groups? reactions to a hypothetical behavioural challenge to identity were compared. Results were similar to Study Two. Participants responded in a manner that suggested that they would regulate their future behaviour relative to their healthy-eater identity. In response to the behavioural challenge to identity, individuals who highly identified as healthy-eaters expressed less (a) positive affect, greater (b) negative affect, (c) self-regulatory efficacy for managing their healthy eating in the future challenging weeks, (d) intentions to eat a healthy diet, (e) generated more self-regulatory strategies and had (f) stronger intentions to use those strategies in future weeks under the same challenging conditions than did individuals who moderately identified themselves as healthy-eaters. Further, prospective relationships between healthy-eater identity and social cognitive variables, and healthy eating outcomes were examined. As was found in Study One in the context of exercise, healthy-eater identity and social cognitions predicted healthy eating outcomes. <br /><br /> Taken together, the three studies suggest that identity may be important in understanding health behaviours and the regulation of these behaviours. Also, the present findings support the compatible use of Identity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory in the investigation of identity and health behaviour....
Stabilization Strategies of the Lumbar Spine in Vivo
(University of Waterloo, 2002)
In developing a method of quantifying stability in the lumbar spine Cholewicki and McGill (1996) have also broached the notion of sufficient stability, where too much stiffness (and stability) would hinder motion. Thus ...
Determinants And Strategies For The Alternate Foot Placement
(University of Waterloo, 2005)
Undesirable landing area (e. g. , a hole, a fragment of glass, a water puddle, etc) creates the necessity for an alternate foot placement planning and execution. Previous study has proposed that three determinants are ...
Self-efficacy theory and the self-regulation of exercise behaviour
(University of Waterloo, 2005)
Why are people unable to adhere to an exercise program? Adhering to an exercise program is complex, and exercisers struggle with a variety of challenges that require self-regulation (e. g. , making time, learning skills, changing behaviour). Bandura (1995b) has deemed the assessment of self-regulatory efficacy to manage the regular performance of health behaviours (e. g. , exercise) essential. Despite this recommendation, few components of self-regulation have been examined in the exercise and self-efficacy research to date (McAuley & Mihalko, 1998). Furthermore, major reviews of the exercise-related self-efficacy literature have demonstrated that task self-efficacy has been the predominant operationalization of the self-efficacy construct, and barriers self-efficacy has been the most prevalent operationalization of self-regulatory efficacy (Culos-Reed, Gyurcsik, & Brawley, 2001; McAuley & Mihalko, 1998). However, self-regulation of behaviour involves more than managing barriers and overcoming their limitations (Barone, Maddux, & Snyder, 1997; Brawley, 2005; DuCharme & Brawley, 1995). In order to examine other aspects of self-regulatory efficacy, self-efficacy theory was used as the underpinning for the three studies in this dissertation (Bandura, 1986, 1997). <br /><br /> In Study One an expanded operationalization of exercise-related self-regulatory efficacy was investigated. The construction of various self-regulatory efficacy indices was informed by self-regulation frameworks (Barone et al. , 1997; Baumeister et al. , 1994). These indices as well as barriers efficacy were used to prospectively predict self-reported exercise behaviour. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the expanded self-regulatory efficacy variables (i. e. , scheduling, relapse prevention, goal-setting self-efficacy) explained a significant amount of variance in exercise behaviour. In addition, barriers efficacy also contributed significant, but modest, variance to the model. These results underscore McAuley and Mihalko?s (1998) recommendation that multiple measures of self-efficacy should be used to examine exercise behaviour. The findings also emphasize that a focus solely on barriers as the indicant of self-regulatory efficacy in exercise may be overlooking other aspects of the construct that contribute to prediction. <br /><br /> Study Two extended the descriptive findings of the first study and addressed a recognized research need (Dzewaltowski, 1994; McAuley & Blissmer, 2000; McAuley et al. , 2001). Specifically, this study examined the possibility of individual differences (i. e. , optimism, consideration of future consequences) influencing the relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and exercise behaviour. Results indicated that participants higher in optimism reported significantly greater self-regulatory efficacy and exercise intentions for intensity than did those lower in optimism. In addition, participants higher in consideration of future consequences (CFC) reported greater self-regulatory efficacy and exercise attendance than participants with moderate CFC. Finally, CFC significantly moderated the influence of various indices self-regulatory efficacy on subsequent exercise attendance. However the effect upon the prospective relationship was modest. <br /><br /> Whereas the first two studies examined the predictive relationship between self-regulatory efficacy and exercise behaviour, Study Three focused upon the influence of sources of self-regulatory efficacy in strengthening efficacy beliefs. This investigation concerned the effects of an acute manipulation of self-efficacy information in changing self-regulatory self-efficacy within a special population -- cardiac rehabilitation exercise program participants. According to theory, sources of self-efficacy information are common to task and self-regulatory efficacy (Bandura, 1997). <br /><br /> The study used a 2 (message condition) by 2 (time) design in which cardiac rehabilitation program participants were randomly assigned to conditions. Utilizing a written message employing the self-efficacy sources of verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences, self-regulatory efficacy for the scheduling of independent exercise was targeted within an ?efficacy enhancing? condition. This condition was compared to an ?information control? message of other information relevant to cardiac rehabilitation participants. As hypothesized, the efficacy-enhancing condition exhibited increased scheduling self-efficacy compared to the control condition. As well, exercise-related cognitions (i. e. , intentions for frequency, action plans, behavioural commitment to learning about independent exercise) were superior for the efficacy-enhancing condition participants compared to their control conditioncounterparts. <br /><br /> Taken together, the studies support and extend research on self-regulatory efficacy in the exercise domain. In part, this was accomplished by expanding the operationalization of exercise-related self-regulatory efficacy to represent more components of self-regulation than examined in the exercise literature to date. In addition, these studies extend previous descriptive research by examining the potential moderators of the influence of self-regulatory efficacy on exercise behaviour. Finally, the third study represented one of the first efforts to experimentally manipulate determinants of self-regulatory efficacy for independent exercise in a special population. It supported the hypothesis that informational determinants (i. e. , vicarious experience, verbal persuasion) can be acutely manipulated to increase self-regulatory efficacy among cardiac rehabilitation participants....
The Dilemma of Proxy-Agency in Exercise: a Social-Cognitive Examination of the Balance between Reliance and Self-Regulatory Ability
(University of Waterloo, 2005)
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT: Bandura, 1997) has been used successfully in understanding exercise adherence. To date, the majority of the exercise research has focused on situations of personal agency (i. e. , self ...